sary to implement an aggressive cover crop growing near a shallow rooted vegetable crop. He is experimenting successfully with rye instead of summer fallow. Annual medics have been tested in Michigan as a hay and forage crop, as a cover crop or green manure and as aninterseeded crop. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. Boost organic matter. Application Rate: 8 lb/acre (undersow), broadcast at 25 lb/acre or drill at 20 lb/acre Crimson clover is commonly used as a vineyard cover crop. Medics can be grazed or mowed at intervals with no ill effects. 4. Snail medic (M. scutellata) is a prolific seed producer. Quick spring regrowth suppresses early weeds. In California orchards and vineyards where winters are rainy instead of frigid, medics mixed with other grasses and legumes provide a continuous cover that crowds out weeds. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 3rd edition, Selecting the Best Cover Crops for Your Farm, Building Soil Fertility and Tilth with Cover Crops, Managing Cover Crops in Conservation Tillage Systems. One followed a spring wheat crop, the other he planted into a six-year-old stand of GEORGE medic. They grow quickly in response to fall California rains and fix from 55 to 90 lb. As an off-season crop where the cover crop is established after the growing season of the Winters, Yolo Co., CA. This use requires livestock for maximum economic benefit. Winter-annual clovers and medics are key ingredients in … GAMMA medic (M. rugosa) had the highest first-year seed production but re-established poorly, apparently due to a low hard seed content. Sudan grass medic mix L egumes and grasses are fast-growing ground cover crops that provide an alternative to animal manure as fertilizer to amend and improve the soil. See Southern Burr Medic Offers Reseeding Persistence. Medics are more susceptible than subclover to seed production loss from closely mowing densely planted erect stalks. Seeding as hay or forage crop: Annual medics can be 'clear-seeded' in early spring as a hay or forage crop with a small-grain drill. Rolling is recommended before or after seeding to improve seed-soil contact and moisture in the seed zone. Organic farmers, in particularly in dry areas, have used black medic successfully as a self-regenerating legume during the summerfallow year. Annual MOGUL produced the most biomass by fall, but also reduced barley yields. Black medic can germinate within three days of planting (286). GEORGE black medic is prostrate, allowing other grasses and forbs to become the overstory for grazing. Black medic and two annual medics produced 50 to 150 lb. They are generally adapted to dry conditions, prefer soil pH above six and lack the ability to overwinter in the northern region. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An early August seeding of the annuals in southern Illinois germinated well, stopped growing during a hot spell, then restarted. They reseed up to three times per summer, dying back naturally each time. It depends on a farmer’s goals. An example would be white mustard with its high amounts of glucosinolate, which can be toxic and help control the populations of damaging nematodes. He did a comparison with side-by-side fields of spring wheat. Use in any size of garden in the late summer or early fall (after harvest) in northern areas and at any time in the South. Those are high yields for Alger’s area, partly due to timely summer rain. These traits are valuable in long rotations of forages and cash crops as well as in mixtures for cover cropping (Sanders et al., 2011). Approximate seeds per pack: 500 Days till maturity: 90 Perennial Full & Partial Sun Container Friendly This has a full variety of plants to help replenish your garden! They serve well in seasonally dry areas from mild California to the harsh Northern Plains. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. A local accession collected in northern Mississippi exhibits better cold hardiness and insect resistance than commercially available (Australian) annual medics. Black medic (M. lupulina) is usually called a perennial. As an interseeded crop: Medics can be grown as companion crops or interseeded with corn, sugarbeet and wheat. serious pest of bur medic. It also appears to be particularly prone to outbreaks of the two-spotted spider mite, a pest found in many West Coast orchards (422). Producers in Europe, North Dakota, and Canada have already experimented with black medic as a cover crop. We’ve been providing cover crop seed to distributors for nearly 50 years. April soil N value after black medic in one Montana test was 117 lb./A, about 2.5 times the fallow N level and the best of six cultivars tested, all of which used less water than the fallow treatment (378). Insect pests such as clover leaf weevil (Hypera punctata Fabricius) and the alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica Gyllenhal) preferentially attack medics over other winter legume cover crops in the Southeast, and could jeopardize seed production. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. semi-erect, late maturing, good cold tolerance, prostrate, mid-maturing, some cold tolerance, erect, early maturing, some cold tolerance, semi-prostrate, early maturing, unknown cold tolerance. All cover crops significantly reduced nitrate-N accumulations in Iowa State University (ISU) trials. In North Dakota, however, unrestricted medic growth depressed yield of a following wheat crop (73). In a Michigan test of forage legumes for emergency forage use, MOGUL barrel medic produced 1.5 T dry matter/A compared to about 1 T/A for SAVA snail medic and SANTIAGO burr medic (M. polymorpha). Soil should be well-drained, as medics are susceptible to diseases like rhizoctonia, phytophthora and fusarium under water-logged conditions. Southern spotted burr medic (Medicago arabica) shows promise as a winter legume that can reseed for several years from a single seed crop in Hardiness Zone 7 of the Southeast. N/A when interplanted with standard and semi-dwarf barley in a Minnesota trial. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. In another Michigan comparison, winter canola (Brassica napus) yields were similar after a green manure comparison of two medics, berseem clover and NITRO annual alfalfa. Medics are widely adapted to soils that are reasonably fertile, but not distinctly acid or alkaline. There are at least 10 cultivars of barrel medic. Medics can survive in summer drought-prone areas where few other cultivated forage legumes would, thanks to their hard-seeded tendency and drought tolerance. Cover crop seed mix has huge potential to improve your farm’s long term productivity and profitability. 1. Local environmental variations, such as sandy or clay soils with differing soil nutrient availability or drain-CHapter 2 Cover Crop Species and Descriptions Chuck A. Ingels, Robert L. Bugg, and Fred L. Thomas Monocultures versus Mixes, 8 Winter annual Cover Crops for Tilled Vineyards, 13 Legumes, 13 grasses, 16 forbs, 17 Nitrogen production was 66 lb./A for MOGUL, 46 for SAVA and 22 for SANTIAGO. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. This site is maintained by SARE Outreach for the SARE program and is based upon work supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under award No. Research in the Southeast showed that if Southern spotted burr medic begins blooming March 23, it would form viable seed by May 2, and reach maximum seed formation by May 12. Quick germination and maturity can lead to three crops (two reseedings) in a single season from a spring planting in the Midwest (373). The medic came on strong. Using hot weather cover crops is very similar to using cool weather cover crops. A leading new cultivar, SEPHI, flowers about a week earlier than JEMALONG, commonly used in California (251, 422).SEPHI, a mid-season cultivar, has a more erect habit for better winter production, is adapted to high- and low-rainfall areas, yields more seed and biomass than others, has good tolerance to Egyptian alfalfa weevil and high tolerance to spotted alfalfa aphid and blue green aphid. Most stands are volunteer and can be encouraged by proper grazing, cultivation or fertilization. MOGUL barrel medic grew the most biomass in a barley intercrop, compared with SANTIAGO burr medic and GEORGE black medic in a four-site Minnesota trial. Yields averaged over one wet year and one dry year were about 1T dry matter and 60 lb. Annual Medic Cultivars. The two legumes in the mix were crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). Fallow is the intentional resting of soil for a season so it will build up moisture and gain fertility by biological breakdown of organic matter. Established burr medic tolerates shade as a common volunteer in the understories of California walnut orchards, which are heavily shaded from April through November. Native medic seed is being increased in cooperation with the USDA -Natural Resources Conservation Service’s Jamie Whitten Plant Materials Center, Coffeeville, Miss., for possible accelerated release to seed growers as a “source-identified” cover crop. Our SmartMix calculator creates a custom cover crop mix that’s just right for your field. Up to 96 percent of it is hard seed, much of it so hard seeded that it won’t germinate for two years. He let it mature to its full 12 inches to harvest it for seed. In dry areas of California, medic monocultures are planted at a rate of 2 to 6 lb./A, while the rate with grasses or clovers is 6 to 12 lb./A (422). The two brassicas used were daikon radish ... black medic (Medicago lupulina), a non-native legume that is a common cool-season weed. Harvesting the medics at 60 days as forage did not significantly lessen their green manure value (373). In studies in several states, the native medic successfully reseeded for at least two years when growth was terminated two weeks after TIBBEE bloomed. Reduce soil erosion. In year 3, he sprayed it with glyphosate in order to establish a sorghum sudangrass hybrid as emergency forage on May 15. Once as widely grown as hairy vetch in the mid-South region of the U.S., burr medic persists in non-cropland areas because it is well adapted to the region (326, 327). A cover crop’s definition is broad. Now, we have a full suite of common seeds as well as specialty proprietary genetics to help you really dial in your cover crop offerings to build soil, retain moisture, and reduce weeds. All are available in small and bulk bags, straight or blended, raw or coated. Further, the long-lived seed bank that black medic establishes may be undesirable for some cash crop rotations (383). Southern spotted burr medic is a native M. polymorpha cultivar with more winterhardiness than most of the current burr medics, which are imported from Australia. Be sure to select a species to fit your weather and crop rotation. Black medic has a high percentage of hard seed. Most upright varieties resemble alfalfa in their seeding year with a single stalk and short taproot.Medics can produce more than 100 Significant annual types include: burr medic (M. polymorpha), which grows up to 14 inches tall, is semi-erect or prostrate, hairless, and offers great seed production and N-fixing ability; barrel medic (M. truncatula), about 16 inches tall, with many mid-season cultivars; and snail medic (M. scutellata), which is a good biomass and N producer. Spring -planted annual medics produced dry matter yields similar to or greater than alfalfa by July (373, 376). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. N/A and 3 percent organic matter on his Judith clay loam soils. Great N from more water. The burs are concentrated nutrition for winter forage, but lower the value of fleece when they become embedded in wool. Black medic is palatable to livestock and has fair forage value. Cool season legume cover crop. dry matter/A from a springs own barrel medic (164). Versatile for any garden, and attractant to pollinators as well. Otherwise known as “green manure”, cover crops are plants that are selected to provide some kind of enrichment or protection to the soil. With certain types of cover crops, you can select a seed or seed mix whose primary purpose is to fix primarily the nitrogen and/or the potassium levels of your soil. The legume germinated, but didn’t grow well or provide weed suppression until after corn dry-down in mid-September. It can improve soil, reduce diseases, save moisture and boost grain protein when grown in rotations with grains in the Northern Plains. With timely moisture, you can get a hay cutting within nine to 10 weeks after germination, and some species will keep working to produce a second cutting. You will, of course, use different varieties for best results.
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